For the French revolutionary soul, the Gregorian Calendar, the one we are using today, reminded too much of religion. On that day, the Republican Calendar was put in place retroactively. The first day of the first year of this calendar was the date of the proclamation of the Republic — September 22, At the end of the days, five public holidays were added and a sixth day every fourth year, to celebrate the sanculottide.
The non-aristocratic members of the Third Estate now represented 98 percent of the people but could still be outvoted by the other two bodies. In the lead-up to the May 5 meeting, the Third Estate began to mobilize support for equal representation and the abolishment of the noble veto — in other words, they wanted voting by head and not by status.
While all of the orders shared a common desire for fiscal and judicial reform as well as a more representative form of government, the nobles in particular were loath to give up the privileges they enjoyed under the traditional system.
Tennis Court Oath By the time the Estates-General convened at Versailles, the highly public debate over its voting process had erupted into hostility between the three orders, eclipsing the original purpose of the meeting and the authority of the man who had convened it.
On June 17, with talks over procedure stalled, the Third Estate met alone and formally adopted the title of National Assembly; three days later, they met in a nearby indoor tennis court and took the so-called Tennis Court Oath serment du jeu de paumevowing not to disperse until constitutional reform had been achieved.
Within a week, most of the clerical deputies and 47 liberal nobles had joined them, and on June 27 Louis XVI grudgingly absorbed all three orders into the new assembly.
The Bastille and the Great Fear On June 12, as the National Assembly known as the National Constituent Assembly during its work on a constitution continued to meet at Versailles, fear and violence consumed the capital. Though enthusiastic about the recent breakdown of royal power, Parisians grew panicked as rumors of an impending military coup began to circulate.
A popular insurgency culminated on July 14 when rioters stormed the Bastille fortress in an attempt to secure gunpowder and weapons; many consider this event, now commemorated in France as a national holiday, as the start of the French Revolution.
The wave of revolutionary fervor and widespread hysteria quickly swept the countryside. Revolting against years of exploitation, peasants looted and burned the homes of tax collectors, landlords and the seigniorial elite. Drafting a formal constitution proved much more of a challenge for the National Constituent Assembly, which had the added burden of functioning as a legislature during harsh economic times.
For instance, who would be responsible for electing delegates? Would the clergy owe allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church or the French government?
Perhaps most importantly, how much authority would the king, his public image further weakened after a failed attempt to flee the country in Juneretain? This compromise did not sit well with influential radicals like Maximilien de RobespierreCamille Desmoulins and Georges Danton, who began drumming up popular support for a more republican form of government and for the trial of Louis XVI.
On the domestic front, meanwhile, the political crisis took a radical turn when a group of insurgents led by the extremist Jacobins attacked the royal residence in Paris and arrested the king on August 10, The following month, amid a wave of violence in which Parisian insurrectionists massacred hundreds of accused counterrevolutionaries, the Legislative Assembly was replaced by the National Convention, which proclaimed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the French republic.
On January 21,it sent King Louis XVI, condemned to death for high treason and crimes against the state, to the guillotine; his wife Marie-Antoinette suffered the same fate nine months later.
In Junethe Jacobins seized control of the National Convention from the more moderate Girondins and instituted a series of radical measures, including the establishment of a new calendar and the eradication of Christianity.
They also unleashed the bloody Reign of Terror la Terreura month period in which suspected enemies of the revolution were guillotined by the thousands.
Many of the killings were carried out under orders from Robespierre, who dominated the draconian Committee of Public Safety until his own execution on July 28, Over 17, people were officially tried and executed during the Reign of Terror, and an unknown number of others died in prison or without trial.
Executive power would lie in the hands of a five-member Directory Directoire appointed by parliament. Royalists and Jacobins protested the new regime but were swiftly silenced by the army, now led by a young and successful general named Napoleon Bonaparte.
By the late s, the directors relied almost entirely on the military to maintain their authority and had ceded much of their power to the generals in the field.Presents a synopsis of the author's interpretation of the French Revolution.
This book argues that the Revolution can only be understood in terms of class struggle, and . Nov 09, · Watch video · The French Revolution was a watershed event in modern European history that began in and ended in the late s with the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte.
French Revolution – The French Revolution is also called The Revolution of Liberty, Equality and Brotherhood was one of the mottos in the French Revolution. The French Revolution broke out in , and its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades.
World War I began in World War I began in Its inception resulted from many trends in European society, culture, and diplomacy during the late 19th century. About the Book.
Albert Soboul has held the Chair of the History of the French Revolution at the Sorbone since , and is probably the leading Marxist scholar working in that field today.
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