Visit Website He returned to the United States without his doctorate but later received one from Harvard while teaching classics at Wilberforce University in Ohio. There he married Nina Gomer, one of his students, in The work took up so much of his time that he missed the birth of his first son in Great Barrington.
He received a Ph. Although Du Bois took an advanced degree in history, he was broadly trained in the social sciences; and, at a time when sociologists were theorizing about race relations, he was conducting empirical inquiries into the condition of blacks. For more than a decade he devoted himself to sociological investigations of blacks in America, producing 16 research monographs published between and at Atlanta University in Georgiawhere he was a professor, as well as The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Studythe first case study of a black community in the United States.
Library of Congress, Washington, D. Although Du Bois had originally believed that social science could provide the knowledge to solve the race problem, he gradually came to the conclusion that in a climate of virulent racismexpressed in such evils as lynchingpeonagedisfranchisement, Jim Crow segregation lawsand race riots, social change could be accomplished only through agitation and protest.
In this view, he clashed with the most influential black leader of the period, Booker T. Washingtonwho, preaching a philosophy of accommodation, urged blacks to accept discrimination for the time being and elevate themselves through hard work and economic gain, thus winning the respect of whites.
This attack crystallized the opposition to Booker T. Two years later, inDu Bois took the lead in founding the Niagara Movementwhich was dedicated chiefly to attacking the platform of Booker T. But it was significant as an ideological forerunner and direct inspiration for the interracial NAACPfounded in In this role he wielded an unequaled influence among middle-class blacks and progressive whites as the propagandist for the black protest from until Both in the Niagara Movement and in the NAACP, Du Bois acted mainly as an integrationist, but his thinking always exhibited, to varying degrees, separatist-nationalist tendencies.
One ever feels his twoness—an American, a Negro ; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder.
Du Bois was a leader of the first Pan-African Conference in London in and the architect of four Pan-African Congresses held between and Second, he articulated a cultural nationalism.
This doctrine became especially important during the economic catastrophe of the s and precipitated an ideological struggle within the NAACP. He resigned from the editorship of The Crisis and the NAACP inyielding his influence as a race leader and charging that the organization was dedicated to the interests of the black bourgeoisie and ignored the problems of the masses.
At the turn of the century, he had been an advocate of black capitalism and black support of black business, but by about he had been drawn toward socialist doctrines. Although he joined the Socialist Party only briefly inhe remained sympathetic with Marxist ideas throughout the rest of his life.
He also produced two major books during this period. An Essay Toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, — was an important Marxist interpretation of Reconstruction the period following the American Civil War during which the seceded Southern states were reorganized according to the wishes of Congressand, more significantly, it provided the first synthesis of existing knowledge of the role of blacks in that critical period of American history.
In this brilliant book, Du Bois explained his role in both the African and the African American struggles for freedom, viewing his career as an ideological case study illuminating the complexity of the black-white conflict.
This brief connection ended in a second bitter quarrel, and thereafter Du Bois moved steadily leftward politically.
Identified with pro-Russian causes, he was indicted in as an unregistered agent for a foreign power. Although a federal judge directed his acquittal, Du Bois had become completely disillusioned with the United States. In he applied toand was accepted as a member of, the Communist Party.yunusemremert.com?rskey=1qdELT&result= Watch video · Du Bois fought what he believed was an inferior strategy, subsequently becoming a spokesperson for full and equal rights in every realm of a person's life.
Co-Founder of the N.A.A.C.P. David Levering Lewis is the Martin Luther King Jr., chair in the history at Rutgers University. He has been awarded fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation, Woodrow Wilson International Center, the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, the National Humanities Center, and the John D.
and Catherine T.
MacArthur Foundation. April. April Child Abuse Prevention Month. In the early s, Congress resolved that the week of June , , should be designated as the first National Child Abuse Prevention Week, in commitment to identifying and implementing solutions to child abuse.
William Edward Burghardt DuBois was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, on February 23, Born to Alfred and Mary DuBois, he was an only child.
In his early childhood his parents separated, and he remained with his mother until her death in William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was born on February 23, , in Great Barrington, Massachusetts to Alfred and Mary Silvina Du Bois.
He was of mixed race, and identified himself as a “mulatto”. His father left the family when William was just two years old, and his mother moved in with her yunusemremert.com Of Birth: Great Barrington.